A conjunction connects phrases, words, or clauses and is often used as a transition. There are two kinds of conjunctions: Coordinating and Subordinating.


And, but, or, for

“Gallaudet teachers communicate in American Sign Language and English.”

either… or; neither… nor; both… and; not only… but also

“Most students use either ASL or English.”

Hence, therefore, moreover, however, besides, consequently

“I like to read; however, I hate to write.”


These introduce subordinate clauses and connect them with the main clause.

Who, which, that

“People who live in glass houses don’t like children to play catch in front of their houses.”

Although, because, since, through, if, as if

Although I work hard, I’m still broke.”


An interjection, such as “Ah ha!,” is an exclamatory word (or words) that shows feeling and has no grammatical function in the construction of a sentence.

Interjection Expressing Example
ah pleasure “Ah, that feels good.”
realization “Ah, now I understand.”
resignation “Ah well, it can’t be helped.”
surprise “Ah! I’ve won!”
alas grief or pity “Alas, she’s dead now.”
dear pity “Oh dear! Does it hurt?”
surprise “Dear me! That’s a surprise!”
eh desire for repetition “It’s hot today.” “Eh?” “I said it’s hot today.”
enquiry “What do you think of that, eh?”
surprise “Eh! Really?”
desire for agreement “Let’s go, eh?”
er hesitation “Lima is the capital of…er…Peru.”
hello, hullo greeting “Hello John. How are you today?”
surprise “Hello! My car’s gone!”
hey desire for attention “Hey! look at that!”
surprise, joy, etc. “Hey! What a good idea!”
hi greeting “Hi! What’s new?”
hmm hesitation, doubt, or disagreement “Hmm. I’m not so sure.”
oh, o surprise “Oh! You’re here!”
pain “Oh! I’ve got a toothache.”
pleading “Oh, please say ‘yes’!”
ouch pain “Ouch! That hurts!”
uh hesitation “Uh…I don’t know the answer to that.”
uh-huh agreement “Shall we go?” “Uh-huh.”
um, umm hesitation “85 divided by 5 is…um…17.”
well surprise “Well I never!”
introducing a remark “Well, what did he say?”


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Grammar and Vocabulary

JSAC 1225



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