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Women in the classroom: After the Civil War
Wired for sound: Listening equipment in the classroom
The Influence of Alexander Graham Bell
Signers and supporters defend sign language
Oral Training in “Signing Schools”
Oral schools form on the principle of “pure oralism”
Oral Education as Emancipation
Assimilation through Spoken English
A Deaf Variety of the Human Race
Language and identity in the 1800s: Deaf students denied use of sign language
National Deaf Life Museum
History Through Deaf Eyes
Language and Identity
The Struggle between Natural and Normal
“God had provided a language addressed to the eye. This is to the deaf-mute a natural language and the only natural language .”
– Collins Stone, 1869, report of the Principal. American School for the Deaf, Hartford, Connecticut
“He (my father) determined even at my early age to have me brought up as much like a normal child as possible. As a result, I do not know to this day, how to speak on my fingers. The sight of deaf people speaking in the public on their fingers was always obnoxious to me and I remember declining repeatedly during my youth to learn this method from my deaf acquaintances.”
– Lincoln Fechheimer, 1876-1954, Clark Institution Alumnus and board member
During speech lessons, teachers and deaf students often touched each other’s throats to feel vocal chord vibrations.
This student is learning the sound of “O” at the New York Institution of the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes, now the Lexington School for the Deaf. Many students spent hours each day in speech training.
Candles were often used to teach speech, because the flame flickered when students correctly pronounced letters such as “b” and “p”.
Gallaudet University, chartered in 1864, is a private university for deaf and hard of hearing students.
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