The following guidelines are based on information found in A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th Ed. by Kate L. Turabian and from The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th Ed. Both books contain the same basic referencing systems.

Paper Format

  • Margins: one inch on all sides
  • Double-spaced
  • 12 points type font size
  • Indent (or five spaces) the first word of each paragraph
  • Your paper begins with a title page. On the title page, centered on the paper, you include the name of your university, the full title of your paper, the course/class information, your name and date, and any other information that your professor may require
  • The title of your paper should be centered two lines below the date. Do not underline or quote the title
  • Header: Each page must have your last name and the page number, starting on the first page after the title page with page 2. The title page should not have any page number on it
  • Single space the footnotes, endnotes, and the references, with a blank line between entries

Always check with your instructor to see if he or she has any different requirements or specifications for your paper.

In-text Citations

Chicago/Turabian style papers use one of two forms of citations. The traditional Chicago style paper uses footnotes or endnotes with a bibliography. The newer Chicago/Turabian style papers use parenthetical notations with a Works Cited page at the end of the paper. However, here at Gallaudet, teachers, especially history instructors, prefer the footnotes method, not the parenthetical notation method. You should check with your instructor to find out which citation style is required.

Footnotes & Endnotes

Footnotes are the reference information that appears at the bottom of the page. Endnotes are the reference information on a separate page at the end of the body of text, just before the bibliography page. To use footnotes or endnotes, you place a superscripted number (a half space above the line, like this2) after the cited material. The superscripted number refers the reader to the matching number in the footnotes or endnotes where the full citation can be found. Both kinds of notes include complete bibliographic information when cited for the first time.

Format for footnotes or endnotes: (Footnotes and endnotes are formatted the same way.)

  • The first line of the note must be indented 5 spaces (or by a tab).
  • You provide the full bibliographic information (only for the first time for that particular reference).
  • Follow this standard format for most written sources:
    • Author’s First and Last name, “Article Title,” Title of Book (City published: Publisher, Year published), page.
  • Article titles from a magazine or newspaper should be in quotation marks
  • Titles of books, journals, magazines, and newspapers should be in italics.
  • You do not need to use a “p” or “pp” with page numbers, unless not using them will cause confusion.

For example, in the text of your paper, you write like this.

Michael K. Richmond, The DPN Rallies (New York: Harper, 1990), 89.

Sample Sentence

President Jordan said that “Deaf people can do anything but hear.” 3

Related Note:

The first time you refer to a source, give the complete information as we did in the above example. However, for the second and next reference to the same source (with the same page number) you use Ibid. If the reference is the same, but the page is not, add the page number, like this: Ibid., 44.

For subsequent reference to the same source, but later in the paper, you use an abbreviated version of the reference, using the author’s last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number. For example: Richmond, DPN, 90.

First reference to the source

1 Joyce Baker, Images of Women in Film: the War Years, 1941 – 1945 (Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1985), 168-169.

Second and next reference to same source

2 Ibid.

Second and next reference to same source, but with new page number

2 Ibid., 175.

Later reference to same source (not next to the first reference)

5 Baker, Women, 180.

Note: If you cannot use the superscript feature on your typewriter or computer, you can use standard line spacing.

Format: Written Sources

Standard format for most written sources, for the first reference in the footnotes/endnotes is:

First name and last name, “Article Title,” Title of Book (City published: Publisher, Year published), page.

Book, by one author

1 Joseph W. Krutch, The Life and Times of Henry David Thoreau (New York: Sloane, 1948), 103.

Book, by two or three authors

2 Milton Congers, Jeremy Salts, and Gina Hardingham, A Look at Life in the Deaf Community (Washington, DC: Gallaudet Press,1994), 237.

Newspaper/Magazine Article

6 Katherine S. Marigolden, “New England Debates More Rules to Make the Best of Its Anti-Gun Laws,” New York Times, 23 Oct. 1988, A2.

Journal Article

5 Jonathan Yardley-Smith, “Ten Books That Shaped the American Curriculum,” American Heritage (May 1985): 24-26.

Anonymous Author

5 “The Death of a Spy,” People, 6 May 1988, 24-26.

Multi-Volume Source

9 Norman Graebner, Gilbert C. Fitch, and Philip L. White, A History of the American People, 2d ed., vol. 2, (New York: McGraw Hill, 1975), 258.

Format: Other Sources

Personal Interview

8 Vinnie Scallion, interview by author, written notes, Washington, D.C., 24 July 1999.

Personal Interview, other

8 Vinnie Scallion, interview by author, TTY, Washington, D.C., 24 July 1999.

Electronic Article

6 Paula Limber, “Relationships between African Bees & American Bees,” Science Today, 20 October 2000 [journal on-line]; available from; Internet; accessed 29 October 2000.

Video recordings

9 Kent Babson, An Incident in the Life of a War Widow, PBS Video, Washington, D.C., 1996.


The reference (bibliography) page is the alphabetized list of sources that you used to write your paper. It should be placed at the end of your paper, on a separate page. It should be titled “Bibliography,” “References,” or “Works Cited” depending on your teacher’s specifications. Your references and your footnotes or endnotes will contain the same information, but the notes are numbered in the order they appear in your paper, while the references should be alphabetized by author’s last name.

Each entry will use a hanging indent (meaning the first line of the entry is at the margin, and the next line(s) is indented five spaces). Your word processing software should be able to provide the hanging indent feature.

The basic format for your reference entries is:

Last Name, First Name. “Article.” Book Title. City published: Publisher, Year published.

Book, by one author

Clawfed, Marilyn. America’s Richest People. Baltimore: Bel Air, 1976.

Book, by two or more authors*

Congers, Milton, Jeremy Salts, and Gina Hardingham. A Look at Life in the Deaf Community. Washington, DC: Gallaudet Press, 1994.

Anonymous Author

“The Death of a Spy.” People. 6 May 1988, 24-26.

Magazine/Journal Article

Comptell, Augustine. “Are We So Beautiful?” Beauty Center, 3 Dec. 1995, 45-50.

Electronic Sources

Flax, Rosabel. Guidelines for Teaching Math to K-12. Kansas City: Kansas Department of Education, 1989. Article on-line. Available from

Personal Interview, in person

Fradley, Paul. Interview by author, 22 Apr 1998, Washington, DC. Written notes.

Personal Interview, other

Fradley, Paul. Interview by author, 22 Apr 1998, Washington, DC. E-mail.

Video recordings

Babson, Kent. An Incident in the life of a War Widow. PBS Video, Washington, D.C., 1996.

* If a book has two or more authors, the subsequent authors will be listed by first name and last name, each name separated by a comma.

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