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Citations and References
Chicago (Turbian) Style Guide
The following guidelines are based on information found in A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th Ed. by Kate L. Turabian and from The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th Ed. Both books contain the same basic referencing systems.
Always check with your instructor to see if he or she has any different requirements or specifications for your paper.
Chicago/Turabian style papers use one of two forms of citations. The traditional Chicago style paper uses footnotes or endnotes with a bibliography. The newer Chicago/Turabian style papers use parenthetical notations with a Works Cited page at the end of the paper. However, here at Gallaudet, teachers, especially history instructors, prefer the footnotes method, not the parenthetical notation method. You should check with your instructor to find out which citation style is required.
Footnotes are the reference information that appears at the bottom of the page. Endnotes are the reference information on a separate page at the end of the body of text, just before the bibliography page. To use footnotes or endnotes, you place a superscripted number (a half space above the line, like this2) after the cited material. The superscripted number refers the reader to the matching number in the footnotes or endnotes where the full citation can be found. Both kinds of notes include complete bibliographic information when cited for the first time.
Format for footnotes or endnotes: (Footnotes and endnotes are formatted the same way.)
For example, in the text of your paper, you write like this.
Michael K. Richmond, The DPN Rallies (New York: Harper, 1990), 89.
President Jordan said that “Deaf people can do anything but hear.” 3
The first time you refer to a source, give the complete information as we did in the above example. However, for the second and next reference to the same source (with the same page number) you use Ibid. If the reference is the same, but the page is not, add the page number, like this: Ibid., 44.
For subsequent reference to the same source, but later in the paper, you use an abbreviated version of the reference, using the author’s last name, a shortened version of the title, and the page number. For example: Richmond, DPN, 90.
First reference to the source
1 Joyce Baker, Images of Women in Film: the War Years, 1941 – 1945 (Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1985), 168-169.
Second and next reference to same source
Second and next reference to same source, but with new page number
2 Ibid., 175.
Later reference to same source (not next to the first reference)
5 Baker, Women, 180.
Note: If you cannot use the superscript feature on your typewriter or computer, you can use standard line spacing.
Standard format for most written sources, for the first reference in the footnotes/endnotes is:
First name and last name, “Article Title,” Title of Book (City published: Publisher, Year published), page.
Book, by one author
1 Joseph W. Krutch, The Life and Times of Henry David Thoreau (New York: Sloane, 1948), 103.
Book, by two or three authors
2 Milton Congers, Jeremy Salts, and Gina Hardingham, A Look at Life in the Deaf Community (Washington, DC: Gallaudet Press,1994), 237.
6 Katherine S. Marigolden, “New England Debates More Rules to Make the Best of Its Anti-Gun Laws,” New York Times, 23 Oct. 1988, A2.
5 Jonathan Yardley-Smith, “Ten Books That Shaped the American Curriculum,” American Heritage (May 1985): 24-26.
5 “The Death of a Spy,” People, 6 May 1988, 24-26.
9 Norman Graebner, Gilbert C. Fitch, and Philip L. White, A History of the American People, 2d ed., vol. 2, (New York: McGraw Hill, 1975), 258.
8 Vinnie Scallion, interview by author, written notes, Washington, D.C., 24 July 1999.
Personal Interview, other
8 Vinnie Scallion, interview by author, TTY, Washington, D.C., 24 July 1999.
6 Paula Limber, “Relationships between African Bees & American Bees,” Science Today, 20 October 2000 [journal on-line]; available from http://www.sciencetoday.com/articles/001020bees.html; Internet; accessed 29 October 2000.
9 Kent Babson, An Incident in the Life of a War Widow, PBS Video, Washington, D.C., 1996.
The reference (bibliography) page is the alphabetized list of sources that you used to write your paper. It should be placed at the end of your paper, on a separate page. It should be titled “Bibliography,” “References,” or “Works Cited” depending on your teacher’s specifications. Your references and your footnotes or endnotes will contain the same information, but the notes are numbered in the order they appear in your paper, while the references should be alphabetized by author’s last name.
Each entry will use a hanging indent (meaning the first line of the entry is at the margin, and the next line(s) is indented five spaces). Your word processing software should be able to provide the hanging indent feature.
The basic format for your reference entries is:
Last Name, First Name. “Article.” Book Title. City published: Publisher, Year published.
Clawfed, Marilyn. America’s Richest People. Baltimore: Bel Air, 1976.
Book, by two or more authors*
Congers, Milton, Jeremy Salts, and Gina Hardingham. A Look at Life in the Deaf Community. Washington, DC: Gallaudet Press, 1994.
“The Death of a Spy.” People. 6 May 1988, 24-26.
Comptell, Augustine. “Are We So Beautiful?” Beauty Center, 3 Dec. 1995, 45-50.
Flax, Rosabel. Guidelines for Teaching Math to K-12. Kansas City: Kansas Department of Education, 1989. Article on-line. Available from http://www.education.gov/ks/k12/math/flax010.html.
Personal Interview, in person
Fradley, Paul. Interview by author, 22 Apr 1998, Washington, DC. Written notes.
Fradley, Paul. Interview by author, 22 Apr 1998, Washington, DC. E-mail.
Babson, Kent. An Incident in the life of a War Widow. PBS Video, Washington, D.C., 1996.
* If a book has two or more authors, the subsequent authors will be listed by first name and last name, each name separated by a comma.
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