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Citations and References
ASA Style Guide
Information for these guidelines is compiled from the American Sociological Association Style Guide, Second Edition. ASA is a non-profit membership association, serving over 13,000 sociologists in various fields of sociology. ASA developed the ASA Style Guide to simplify the most common styles and formats in writing journals and manuscripts. If these guidelines do not meet your needs, please refer to the ASA Style Guide, 2nd Ed. or come to Tutorial & Instructional Programs (TIP) Lab at SAC 1221 for further assistance.
Always check with your instructor to see if he or she has any different requirements or specifications for your paper.
Citations for Most Written Sources. ASA Style Citation require that credit must be given for all information whether it be a direct quote or a paraphrase. Generally you are required to give the following information: author’s last name, year of publication, and page number in parenthesis directly after the quote or paraphrase.
If you include the author’s name as part of the sentence, just give the year in parenthesis directly after the author’s name, and put p. for the page number in parenthesis after the quote.
If there is no publication date, cite the author’s last name followed by n.d. (meaning “no date”).
When a source has two authors, you should give both last names. Within the parenthetical citation, use and between the authors’ names. If you use their names in the sentence, just write and between their names. Both methods must be followed by the year of publication, and at the end of the sentence, put in the page number.
When a source has three authors, cite all the authors’ last names and the year the first time the reference occurs. For later references to the same source cite only the first author’s last name followed by et al. However, if a source has four or more authors, use et al. both in the first citation and in all subsequent citations.
If you are using several different works to illustrate one point, you may find it necessary to cite two or more works written by different authors with different dates. In that situation, organize the information alphabetically by the authors’ last names, and separate each block of information with a semicolon. Put all the names inside one set of parenthesis. Do not use an ampersand (&).
To cite a group author (e.g. association, organization, or government agency) you should spell out the full name.
Quotes of 40 Words or More
Block quotations are presented in smaller type (10pt) and are set off in a separate, indented paragraph. Block quotations should not be enclosed in quotation marks. The author, date, and/or page number, in parenthesis, follows the last period in the block quotation. The P for page should be used and capitalized if it stands alone, without author and year.
Gallaudet University received a lot of publicity during the 1988 DPN Rallies. It was a time when deaf people learned about the strength of their community.
The student protest that shut down Gallaudet University the week of March 6-13, 1988, accomplished far more than just the selection of the world’s first deaf university president. It proved, convincingly, that deaf people could band together effectively for a common cause and succeed. The protest experiences taught deaf people about the needs and values of being more assertive. (Gannon 1988:15)
It also reaffirmed that the deaf population has a voice worth listening to, and that they will fight to be heard by Gallaudet’s Board of Trustees.
For a paper done in ASA documentation style, the reference list will appear in a separate section and will be titled “References.” Here on your References page, you acknowledge your sources by listing them in an alphabetical order by author’s last name. Although the References page appears at the end of your paper, you will draft this section in advance, so that you will have the appropriate information to cite your paper properly.
The general formatting rules for your References page are as follows:
References format for Articles
General format for citing articles and other publications from periodicals is as follows:
References format for Books
If a book have one author, list by last name, first name and middle initial (if any). If a book has two, three, or more authors, the subsequent authors will be listed by first name, middle initial, and last name, each name separated by a comma. The use of et al. is not acceptable.
Works Cited format for Electronic Sources
If you are citing from an online publication, you should include all of the information that you would include for journals or articles. After this standard information, you should include the date you found the information on the world wide web (the date of retrieval) and the web address (URL) where you found the information.
The basic citing format for electronic sources is as follows:
Gallaudet University, chartered in 1864, is a private university for deaf and hard of hearing students.
Copyright © 2023 Gallaudet University. All rights reserved.
800 Florida Avenue NE, Washington, D.C. 20002