The following is a collection of significant citations and references pertaining to the Museum’s permanent exhibition, Gallaudet at 150 and Beyond, and other Museum materials.

Like most historical research, the Museum’s research is an ongoing process. This list is intended to provide a guide to Museum sources, and it is numbered for easy reference.

Please see the panel listing at the bottom for a guide to the panel reference codes.

  • “600 Stage Boycott in College for Deaf.” New York Times. May 17, 1967. (GU)
  • “A Deaf Firefighter? You Bet!” Gallaudet Today, 2004. (HD)
  • “A New Language for Deaf Is Urged.” New York Times. July 26, 1934. (SC)
  • “All Is Quiet at ‘Arsenic and Old Lace’; Deaf Actors Give a Lucid Performance.” New York Times. May 11, 1942, sec. Amusements. (SC)
  • Armstrong, David F. The History of Gallaudet University: 150 Years of a Deaf American Institution. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 2014. (FE, FV, SC, GU, DP, HD, RR)
  • “ASD Graduate Has Painted His Life Successful.” The Mountain Times. June 21, 1984. (OR)
  • “At Kendall Green: Graduating Exercises of the Deaf Mute College Yesterday.” The Washington Post. May 4, 1882. (FV)
  • “Athletics in Colleges: What the Local Institutions Are Doing in The Way of Sports. Faculties Area Little Strict The Deaf-Mute College Takes the Lead in Athletic Sports and Gymnasium Equipments–Several Good Ball and Tennis Teams–No College Boating Crews.” The. April 17, 1891. (FV)
  • “Baker at Gallaudet.” The Washington Post. May 4, 1916. (SC)
  • “Ballin, Albert.” US Deaf History. Accessed March 23, 2014. (OR)
  • Bauman, H.-Dirksen. “Postscript: Gallaudet Protests of 2006 and the Myths of In/Exclusion.” Sign Language Studies 10, no. 1 (October 1, 2009): 90. (RR)
  • Baynton, Douglas C. Forbidden Signs: American Culture and the Campaign against Sign Language. University Of Chicago Press, 1998. (FE, FV)
  • “Beaten by the Deaf Mutes.” The Washington Post. November 30, 1883. (FV)
  • Biemiller, Lawrence. “Campus Architecture Database: Sorenson Language and Communications Center.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 21, 2010. (RR)
  • “Biography of Cadwallader Lincoln Washburn.” The Annex Galleries, n.d. (FV)
  • Bragg, Lois. Deaf World: A Historical Reader and Primary Sourcebook. New York University Press, 2001. (FV, SC, GU, DP)
  • Burch, Susan. Signs Of Resistance: American Deaf Cultural History, 1900 to World War II. NYU Press, 2004. (FV, SC)
  • “Buying of Big Tract as Northeast Park Will Be Advocated.” The Washington Post. December 22, 1925. (SC)
  • Carroll, Cathryn, and Harlan Lane. Laurent Clerc: The Story of His Early Years. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1991. (FE, OR)
  • “Cheer for the Deaf.” The Washington Post. June 23, 1914. (SC)
  • Christiansen, John B, and Sharon Barnartt. Deaf President Now!: The 1988 Revolution at Gallaudet University. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 2003. (DP)
  • “City Brevities.” The Washington Post. January 3, 1882. (FV)
  • “City Talk and Charter.” The Washington Post. October 8, 1880. (FV)
  • Clemetson, Lynette. “An International Gathering For the Deaf in the Arts.” The New York Times, July 8, 2002, sec. Theater. (HD)
  • Cosentino, Andrew J, and Henry H Glassie. The Capital Image: Painters in Washington, 1800-1915. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press for the National Museum of American Art, 1983. (FV)
  • Cronk, Sue. “Board Names New Head at Gallaudet.” The Washington Post and Times Herald. August 20, 1968. (GU)
  • “Deaf Hear and Dumb Speak in City’s Miracle School.” The Washington Post. October 23, 1921. (SC)
  • “Deaf-Mutes in Convention: Discussing Subjects Concerning Their Position in Life.” New York Times. August 30, 1883. (FV)
  • DeBee, James. Laurent Clerc. Debee Communications, 1995. (FE, OR)
  • “Dedication of New Gallaudet Library Told With Hands as Well as Tongue.” The Washington Post and Times Herald. February 6, 1957, sec. City Life. Local News Obituaries Club Page. (SC)
  • “Dr. Gallaudet Quits.” The Washington Post. May 5, 1910. (FV)
  • “Dr. Gallaudet Quits: Founder of College for Deaf and Dumb Resigns. Fifty Three Years’ Service Has Realized His Ambition, Aged Educator Declares at Annual Presentation Day Exercises–Hearers Manifest Regret–Dr. Percival Hale Named as the President of the Faculty.” The Washington Post. May 5, 1910. (FV)
  • “Dr. Hall Dies; Was Head of Gallaudet.” The Washington Post. November 9, 1953. (FV, SC)
  • “Dr. Hall Is Installed.” The Washington Post. May 11, 1911. (FV, SC)
  • “Dr. I. King Jordan – Gallaudet University.” Accessed February 28, 2014. (HD)
  • “Dr. Percival Hall, Teacher of Deaf: Gallaudet College President.” New York Times. November 9, 1953. (SC)
  • “Dr. Robert R. Davila – Gallaudet University.” Accessed February 28, 2014. (RR)
  • “Dr. T. Alan Hurwitz – Gallaudet University.” Accessed February 28, 2014. (RR)
  • Dunlap, David W. “Building a Community for the Deaf.” New York Times. November 14, 1976. (GU)
  • “Easy for Gallaudet.” The Washington Post. October 30, 1910. (FV)
  • Erting, Carol, Robert C. Johnson, Dorothy L. Smith, and Bruce D. Snider, eds. The Deaf Way: Perspectives from the International Conference on Deaf Culture. Gallaudet University Press, 1994. (HD)
  • Fay, Edward Allen. Histories of American Schools for the Deaf. 1817-1893. Washington, D.C.: The Volta Bureau, 1893. (FE, FV)
  • “Football on a Muddy Field: A Lively Contest Between Two University Teams.” The Washington Post. October 28, 1889. (FV)
  • Freelance. “Obituary.” The Deaf Mutes Journal, November 8, 1894, sec. Obituary. (FV)
  • French, Mary, Richard Pillard, and Harlan L Lane. “Origins of the American Deaf-World: Assimilating and Differentiating Societies and Their Relation to Genetic Patterning.” Sign Language Studies 1, no. 1 (2000): 17-44. doi:10.1353/sls.2000.0003. (FE)
  • “Gallaudet Again Active with New Term Under Way.” The Washington Post. January 6, 1924. (SC)
  • “Gallaudet Alumni to Honor Founder: Deaf Are to Commemorate Birthday of Philanthropist This Morning. $50,000 Memorial.” The Washington Post. February 5, 1931. (FV, SC)
  • “Gallaudet Classes Resume as Protests Continue.” USA Today. Accessed February 28, 2014. (HD)
  • Gallaudet, Edward Miner. History of the College for the Deaf, 1857-1907. Edited by Lance J. Fischer and David L. de Lorenzo. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet College Press, 1983. (FV)
  • —. President Garfield’s Connection with the National Deaf-Mute College. Washington, D.C.: Gibson Brothers, Printers, 1882. (OR)
  • —. Some Incidents in the Progress of Deaf-Mute Education in America, 1890-1895. Flint, MI: Michigan School for the Deaf, 1895. (FV, OR)
  • “Gallaudet Gets Clean Bill on Accreditation.” The Washington Post and Times Herald. December 25, 1960. (SC, GU)
  • “Gallaudet Logo Designs on Display; Feedback Sought.” Gallaudet University. Accessed February 28, 2014. (RR)
  • “Gallaudet Plans Percival Hall Honor Program.” The Washington Post. December 13, 1953. (SC, GU)
  • “Gallaudet SLCC Building.” Technology Design Resources, LLC, n.d. (RR)
  • Gallaudet University. “Hume Le Prince Battiste: B.A. 13.,” 1913. (SC)
  • “Gallaudet University Commencement Speech.” CSPAN. Accessed February 28, 2014. (HD)
  • “Gallaudet Wins by a Huge Score.” The Washington Post. November 15, 1914. (SC)
  • “Gallaudet’s Accreditation Hinges on Federal Funds.” The Washington Post and Times Herald. March 18, 1955, sec. City Life. Area News Obituaries Weather. (SC)
  • Gannon, Jack. The Week the World Heard Gallaudet. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 1989. (DP)
  • “Garfield, James Abram.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 2014. (OR)
  • Garretson, Mervin D. My Yesterdays: In a Changing World of the Deaf. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation, 2010. (SC)
  • Hinkel, John. “Hughes, Gallaudet Coach, Makes Good Against Odds: Robbed of Hearing by Illness, Takes Up Coaching and Develops Good Teams From Small, Inexperienced Squads.” The Washington Post. December 7, 1930, sec. Sports. (SC)
  • “History-Making Major League Coaches at Gallaudet.” Gallaudet Today, 2009. (RR)
  • J, W. “David Ballin.” The Silent Worker. December 1894. (OR)
  • “John Carlin.” Accessed February 13, 2014. (FE)
  • Joyner, Hannah. From Pity to Pride: Growing Up Deaf in the Old South. Gallaudet University Press, 2004. (FV)
  • Kendall v. United States, (Supreme Court of the United States of America 1883). (FE, FV)
  • Kinzie, Susan. “Gallaudet Chooses Interim President.” The Washington Post. December 11, 2006, sec. Education. (RR)
  • “Laurent Clerc: Apostle of the Deaf People of the New World.” Gallaudet University: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, 2014. (FE, OR)
  • “Lecture on National Parks Is ‘Heard’ by Deaf Mutes.” The Washington Post. January 23, 1932. (SC)
  • Lee, Jerry. “Biographical Sketch: Jerry C. Lee,” n.d. Deaf Biography Files. Accessed February 13, 2014. (GU)
  • “Letter from Albert V. Ballin to Alexander Graham Bell, June 12, 1903,” June 12, 1903. (OR)
  • McCarthy, Jim. “LibGuides. FAQ: Gallaudet Bison. It’s Origins,” n.d. (SC)
  • McCully, Emily Arnold. My Heart Glow: Alice Cogswell, Thomas Gallaudet, and the Birth of American Sign Language. Hyperion Book CH, 2008. (FE)
  • Meryman Jr, Richard S. “Richard Sumner Meryman-For the Love of Painting (1881-1963).” Accessed March 23, 2014. (OR)
  • Mitchell, Ross, Travas A Young, Bellamie Bachleda, and Michael Karchmer. “How Many People Use American Sign Language (ASL) in the United States? Why Estimates Need Updating.” Sign Language Studies 6, no. 3 (2006). (HD)
  • Moore, Michael. Another Question for You. Email, October 16, 2013. (HD)
  • —. Question Regarding Your Position. Email, October 26, 2013. (HD)
  • Mowl, Anthony. “Dr. T. Alan Hurwitz,USA.” DeafNation World Expo, 2012. (RR)
  • Munhall, Jack. “Gallaudet on Way up Sports Ladder Under Blair Smith.” New York Times. January 18, 1940. (SC)
  • “Notes from Washington.” New York Times. November 20, 1881. (FV)
  • Office of Alumni and Public Relations. “Daniel Chester French.” The Buff and Blue, April 6, 1973. (FV)
  • Oral Deaf History Project: Dr. Leonard Elstad. Vol. 162. Gallaudet University, 1977. (SC)
  • Orton, Kathy. “With Lots of Help in the Post, Gallaudet Women Stand Tall.” The Washington Post. January 20, 2011, sec. Sports. (HD)
  • Our Special Correspondent. “College Commencements:Williams College. Opening Exercises of Commencement Week–Class Day–The Literary Exercises–The Class Festivities. Rutgers College. The Alumni and the College Centennial–Necrology–Degrees Conferred and Prizes Awarded. National Deaf-Mute College. The First Commencement–Interesting Exercise–The Efforts of the Graduating Class. Vassar College. The Commencement Exercises–Conferring Degrees Upon Thirty-Four Young Ladies–Distinguished Professors Present. Commencement Exercises at Yale and Harvard.” New York Times. June 24, 1869. (FV)
  • “Percival Hall Jr., of Gallaudet Faculty.” The Washington Post and Times Herald. July 24, 1968. (SC)
  • “Percival Hall, President Columbia Institute for the Deaf ‘Columbia Institution Land.'” The Washington Post. December 30, 1941. (SC)
  • Peruzzi, Meredith. “Gallaudet at 150: Chapter One.” Gallaudet University, 2011. (FE, FV)
  • Roberts, Byron. “Elstad Gets His Words Across in Sign Language and Orally.” The Washington Post and Times Herald. February 17, 1961. (SC)
  • “Roosevelt Message Hails Head of Gallaudet on Birthday.” The Washington Post. September 17, 1942. (SC)
  • Sacks, Oliver. Seeing Voices: A Journey into the World of the Deaf. Berkley, California: University of California, Berkley Press, 1989. (DP)
  • Schwarz, Alan. “Baseball; A Dream Multiplied by Three.” New York Times. May 4, 2004, sec. Sports. (OR)
  • “Scientists in Council: Topics of Discussion Before the National Academy of Sciences.” New York Times. November 14, 1883. (FV)
  • Shuster, Alvin. “College for Deaf a Typical Campus.” New York Times. October 15, 1950. (SC)
  • Sinick, Heidi. “Finding Secret Drawers and Tapping on the Walls.” The Washington Post and Times Herald. November 23, 1969. (GU)
  • “Social Science Topics: Considering the Many Phases of Education. Development of Infant Life. Education in the South. Instruction for the Deaf.” New York Times. September 7, 1881. (FV)
  • “Students at Football: An Exciting Game Between the Kendall and the Johns Hopkins Elevens.” The Washington Post. October 21, 1888, sec. General. (FV)
  • Sullivan, Dan. “Theater of Deaf Putting Actors through Some Intensive Studies.” New York Times. August 31, 1968. (GU)
  • Tabak, John. Significant Gestures: A History of American Sign Language. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. (FE, FV)
  • The Centennial Souvenir Book Committee. Our Heritage: Gallaudet College Centennial, 1864-1964. Graphic Arts Press, 1964. (FE, FV, SC, GU)
  • “The Deaf-Mute Drama: A Novel and Interesting Entertainment at Kendall Green Chapel.” The Washington Post. November 26, 1881. (FV)
  • “The History Behind DPN: What Happened…” Gallaudet University. Accessed February 14, 2014. (DP)
  • “The History of Kendall School.” Kendall Demonstration Elementary School, 2014. (GU)
  • “The National College for Deaf Mutes: Building Material.” New York Times. June 19, 1872. (FV)
  • “The Silent College: A Visit to the National College for Deaf Mutes. A Charming Situation Origin and History of the Institution the Impressive Chapel Services in There Citation Room of Pupils’ Quickness of Apprehension Some of Them Taught to Speak the Colored Pupils Dick Whittington and His Dark Ways the Valuable Work of the College New Buildings Going Up. the Beginning of the ‘Silent College.’ the Chapel on Sunday. Recitations of the Deaf-Mutes. the Dumb Speak and the Deaf Hear. The Chemical Laboratory. Primary Instruction. Remarkable Results of the Good Work.” New York Times. July 12, 1875. (FV)
  • Thompson, Clayton. “Wrestling Terminology.” Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation 42, no. 4 (1971): 30-31. doi:10.1080/00221473.1971.10623999. (OR)
  • “Thought Without Language: The Narrative of a Deaf-Mute–His First Thoughts and Experiences.” New York Times. June 19, 1880. (FE, FV)
  • Turner, Brittany. “Salary Differentials Based on Gender and Deafness at the Pennsylvania School for the Deaf, 1840-1900.” Gallaudet University, 2013. (FE)
  • “TV Signs On!” Gallaudet Today, Winter 1979. (GU)
  • Van Cleve, John Vickrey, and Brian Greenwald. A Fair Chance in the Race of Life: The Role of Gallaudet University in Deaf History. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press, 2008. (FE, FV, SC, GU, HD, OR)
  • Van Cleve, John V. Deaf History Unveiled: Interpretations from the New Scholarship. Gallaudet University Press, 1999. (FE, FV, SC, OR)
  • Van Cleve, John Vickrey, and Barry A. Crouch. A Place of Their Own: Creating the Deaf Community in America. Gallaudet University Press, 1989. (FE, FV, SC, GU, OR)
  • “Washington Thieves in Alexandria.” The Washington Post. April 18, 1878. (FV)
  • “Washington, D.C. – Gallaudet Connection.” Accessed February 28, 2014. (FV, GU, HD)
  • Weil, Martin. “More Student Power Pledged at Gallaudet.” The Washington Post and Times Herald. August 26, 1969. (GU)
  • White, Ronald D. “Gallaudet President Quits After 3 Months on the Job.” The Washington Post. January 21, 1984. (GU)
  • Wight, John B. A Tribute of Affection and Esteem to Diamond. Washington: Kendall Green, 1888. (OR)

Panel reference codes

  • WL – Welcome
  • FE – The Foundations of Education: 1817-1857
  • FV – The Founder’s Vision: 1857-1910
  • SC – Staying the Course: 1910-1957
  • GU – Growth of a University: 1957-1988
  • DP – Deaf President Now: March 1988
  • HD – From Harmony to Dissent: 1998-2006
  • RR – Reaffirmation and Rebuilding: 2007-2014
  • LF – The Future of Gallaudet University: Looking Forward
  • AC – Acknowledgments
  • OR – Other Resources
About the National Deaf Life Museum

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Celebrating 150 Years!

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